"China's energy policy (2012)" white paper
Orders to record
Before the speech
First, the status quo of energy development
Second, energy development policies and objectives
Third, we will comprehensively promote energy conservation
Fourth, we will energetically develop new energy and renewable energy
Fifth, promote clean development of fossil fuels
We will increase the level of energy services
Accelerating progress in energy and technology
We will deepen the reform of the energy system
Strengthening international cooperation on energy
Before the speech
Energy is the material foundation that sustains the progress of human civilization and is an indispensable basic condition for the development of modern society. Energy is always a major strategic issue in the process of China's modernization and the common prosperity of all people.
Since the reform and opening up in the late 1970s, China's energy industry has come a long way. At present, China has become the world's biggest energy producer, formed coal, electricity, oil, natural gas and new energy and renewable energy comprehensive development system of energy supply, energy universal service level improved, residents living conditions greatly improved. The development of energy provides a strong guarantee for the elimination of poverty, improving people's livelihood and maintaining steady and rapid economic development.
China's energy development faces many challenges. The energy resources are low, and coal, oil and gas per capita are low. Energy consumption has increased rapidly in recent years, and the pressure on energy supply has increased. The large-scale exploitation and utilization of fossil energy has a certain effect on the ecological environment.
To reduce the excessive consumption of energy resources, economic, social and ecological comprehensive, balanced and sustainable development of China's increasing efforts in energy conservation and emissions reduction, efforts to improve the efficiency of energy utilization, per unit of GDP energy consumption dropped year by year. China will be guided by the scientific concept of development, and transformation of the mode of development, focus on building a resource-conserving and environmentally friendly society, relying on energy technology innovation and system innovation, improve energy efficiency, vigorously develop new energy and renewable energy, promote the clean and efficient development and utilization of fossil energy, efforts to build security, stability, economy and cleaning system of modern energy industry, for China's construction of a well-off society in an all-round way to provide a more solid energy security, and make greater contributions to world economic development.
First, the status quo of energy development
Since China's reform and opening up, rapid growth of China's energy industry, has realized the coal, electricity, oil and natural gas, the all-round development of renewable energy and new energy, to ensure long-term stable and rapid development of national economy and people's living standard continuously improve made important contributions.
-- there has been a significant increase in supply assurance. In 2011, China's total energy production reached 3.18 billion tons of standard coal, ranking first in the world. It produced 3.52 billion tons of raw coal, a stable of 200 million tons of crude oil and 270 million tons of refined oil products. Natural gas production increased rapidly, reaching 103.1 billion cubic meters. It has a capacity of 1.06 billion kilowatts and annual power generation of 4.7 trillion kilowatt hours. The energy integrated transport system has developed rapidly. The pipeline is more than 70,000 kilometers long and the natural gas trunk line is 40 thousand kilometers long. The power grid has a basic national interconnection, and the transmission line of 330 kv and above is 179,000 km. The first phase of the national petroleum reserve project has been built, and energy emergency preparedness has been strengthened.
-- the energy savings are clear. China has vigorously promoted energy conservation. Between 1981 and 2011, China's energy consumption grew at an average annual rate of 5.82 percent, supporting an average annual growth of 10 percent for the national economy. From 2006 to 2011, the total energy consumption of 10,000 yuan of GDP fell by 20.7 percent, and achieved energy efficiency of 7.1 billion tons of standard coal. Implementation of boiler, electrical energy-saving reform, building energy efficiency, green lighting and a series of energy-saving renovation project, the main energy-consuming products of comprehensive energy consumption and the international advanced level gap is narrowing, non-ferrous, building materials, petrochemical and other new energy heavy chemical industry project efficiency reached the world advanced level. It can save more than 60 million tons of raw coal per year by eliminating the 80gw of low power generating units. In 2011, coal-fired power consumption in the country fell by 10 percent from 2006 to 37 grams of standard coal/KWH.
-- non-fossil energy development. China actively develops new energy and renewable energy sources. In 2011, the country's hydropower capacity reached 230 million kw, ranking first in the world. The nuclear power plant has 15 stations and installed capacity of 12.54 mw, with 26 units under construction and a total installed capacity of 29.24 million kw, the largest in the world. Wind power has a combined capacity of 47 million kilowatts, ranking first in the world. Photovoltaic power is growing strongly, with a capacity of 3 gigawatts. Solar water heaters have an area of over 200 million square meters. We will actively promote the use of other renewable energy sources such as biogas, geothermal energy and tidal energy. Non-fossil fuels account for 8 percent of energy consumption, and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by more than 600 million tons per year.
-- the level of science and technology has improved rapidly. Built a relatively complete system of oil and gas exploration and development technology, complex block exploration and development, improve the oil recovery technology in a leading position in the world. The 3,000m deepwater horizon rig was built successfully. Tens of thousands of tons of oil refining and millions of tons of ethylene devices are designed and manufactured independently. Breakthroughs have been made in coal direct liquefaction and coal-to-alkene technology with advanced global and indigenous intellectual property rights. The degree of mechanization of coal mining in the country reached more than 60%, and the whole set of equipment was fully promoted. Millions of mw ultra-supercritical, large air cooling unit is widely used, the large capacity high parameters, such as design of 700000 mw turbine unit manufacturing technology reached the world advanced level. It has the capability of self-design, construction and operation of the MWH nuclear power plant, and has made major breakthroughs in the development of high temperature gas cooled reactor and fast reactor technology. Three megawatt wind turbines were used in batches, and the six-megawatt wind turbines were successfully removed. The manufacturing industry chain of solar photovoltaic power generation, which produces more than 40 percent of the global production capacity, is formed. The technology and equipment manufacturing level of uht is the leading position in the world.
-- improve on your ability. We will actively promote the construction of people's livelihood energy projects and improve the level of energy services. In 2011, China's per capita energy consumption reached 2.6 tons of standard coal, up 31 percent from 2006. Per capita gas consumption was 89.6 cubic meters, up 110 percent. Per capita electricity consumption is 3493 kilowatt-hours, up 60%. The first line of west gas and the second line of project, the national use of natural gas has more than 180 million people. We implemented the upgrading and upgrading of rural power grids, and invested more than 550 billion RMB in the rural electric grid, making the situation of rural electricity consumption radically changed. The construction of the qinghai-tibet networking project has successfully completed the history of the operation of the isolated network in Tibet. We promoted power generation in the non-electric region and solved the electricity problem of more than 30 million people without electricity. In the northern part of the country, 70 million kilowatts of heat and electricity production was built, and the heating problem of over 40 million urban people was solved.
Environmental protection has been outstanding. China will accelerate the management of coal mining and subsidence areas, establish and improve the mechanism for the restoration of coal development and ecological environment. In 2011, the rate of primary coal entry was 52%, and the land reclamation rate was 40%. We will accelerate the construction of coal-burning power plants for desulphurization and denuded facilities, and the gas desulfurization units account for about 90 percent of the country's coal-fired units. The rate of installation and discharge of coal unit dust removal facilities and wastewater discharge is 100%. The development and utilization of coal bed methane (coal mine gas) was developed, and the extraction volume reached 11.4 billion cubic meters, which was the first in the world to implement the coal bed methane emission standard. Over the past five years, the energy consumption per unit of GDP has decreased by 1.46 billion tons.
-- the institutional mechanism is constantly improving. The market mechanism plays an increasing role in the allocation of resources. Investment in the energy sector has diversified and private investment has been growing. The production and circulation of coal is basically market-oriented. The electric power industry has implemented the separation of government and enterprises, the separation of the factory network and the preliminary establishment of the regulatory system. Energy price reform has been deepened and the mechanism for price formation has been gradually improved. We launched a pilot program for sustainable development of coal industries. We formulated the system of electricity tariff for wind power and pv, and established the renewable energy development fund. Strengthen energy legal system construction, in recent years issued the revised "energy conservation law", "renewable energy law", "circular economy promotion law", the oil and gas pipeline protection act and regulations on the civil building energy efficiency, regulations on the public agencies and other laws and regulations.
As the world's largest producer of energy, China relies on its own power to develop energy, and its energy supply has remained at around 90%. China's energy development has not only ensured domestic economic and social development, but also made major contributions to world energy security. In the coming period, China will continue to be in the stage of industrialization and urbanization, and energy demand will continue to grow.
-- the conflict of resource constraints is prominent. China's per capita energy resources in the world at lower levels, the ownership of coal, oil and natural gas per capita is only 67% of the world's average level, 5.4% and 7.5%. Although China's energy consumption has grown rapidly in recent years, it is still relatively low in energy consumption per capita, just a third of the average in the developed world. With the development of economic and social development and the improvement of people's living standards, future energy consumption will also be greatly increased, and resource constraints will continue to grow.
-- energy efficiency needs to be improved. China's industrial structure is not reasonable and the mode of economic development has yet to be improved. China's energy consumption per unit of GDP is not only much higher than that of developed countries, but also more than some of the newly industrialized countries. Energy-intensive technologies behind, the second industry, especially in energy-intensive industries too much energy, steel, nonferrous metal, chemical industry, building materials four energy-intensive industries can use accounted for about 40% of the whole society can use. The energy efficiency is relatively low, the unit added value energy consumption is higher.
Environmental pressures are mounting. The large-scale exploitation and utilization of fossil fuels, especially coal, has a serious impact on the ecological environment. A large number of cultivated land occupied and destruction, water pollution is serious, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and harmful emissions of heavy metals, ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) increased pollution, etc. The future quite a long period of time, the fossil energy in energy structure in China still account for the main body status, protect the ecological environment, increasing pressure to respond to climate change, an urgent need to green energy transformation.
-- the energy security situation is grim. In recent years, energy dependence has been rising fast, especially in oil, which has risen from 32% in the early 2000s to 57% today. The safety risks of oil and Marine transport are increased, and the safety of cross-border oil and gas pipelines should not be ignored. Price volatility in the international energy market has increased the difficulty of securing domestic energy supplies. The energy reserves are smaller, the emergency capability is relatively weak and the energy security situation is grim.
The institutional mechanism urgently needs reform. Deep-seated contradictions accumulate energy system mechanism, price mechanism is not perfect, industry management is still relatively weak, energy generally, it is necessary to improve the service level institutional constraints has become a serious obstacle to promote the development of energy science.
The problems facing China's energy development, is by the international energy competition, China's productivity level and stage of development, also with unreasonable industrial structure and energy structure, energy development and utilization pattern is closely related to the mechanism reform lags behind, the related system. China will vigorously promote energy production and utilization way change, perfecting the policy system, to achieve energy and comprehensive, balanced and sustainable development of economy, society and ecology.
Second, energy development policies and objectives
China is the world's largest developing country, facing the daunting task of developing economy, improving people's livelihood and building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Maintaining sustainable and sustainable energy resources is an important strategic task for the Chinese government. China's energy must go high technology content, low resources consumption, little environmental pollution and good economic benefit and safeguard the development of roads, fully realize the economical development, clean development and safe development.
The basic content of China's energy policy is: adhere to the "saving priority, based on domestic, diversified development, environmental protection, science and technology innovation, deepen the reform, international cooperation, improve people's livelihood" energy development policy, to promote energy production and utilization way change, building security, stability, economic, clean modern energy industry system, efforts to support the sustainable development of economic and social sustainable development of energy.
-- prioritize. Implementation of the total energy consumption and intensity of the double control, and strive to build energy-saving system of production, consumption, and promote the economic development mode and life consumption pattern change, speed up the building energy-saving and economical society.
-- domestic. Based on the domestic resources and development foundation, ability to focus on enhancing energy supply security, improving the energy reserves emergency system, reasonable control external dependency, raise the level of energy security.
-- diversified development. Strive to improve the clean low-carbon fossil energy and the proportion of non-fossil energy sources, promote clean coal efficient utilization, actively implement alternative energy science, speed up the optimization of energy production and consumption structure.
-- protecting the environment. Establish green, low carbon development concept, as a whole the exploitation and utilization of energy resources and ecological environment protection and development in the protection, protection in the development, actively cultivate meet the requirements of the ecological civilization energy development mode.
-- innovation in science and technology. We will strengthen basic scientific research and research in cutting-edge technologies, and enhance the capacity for innovation in energy science and technology. Relying on key energy projects, we will promote independent innovation of major core technologies and key equipment and accelerate the construction of innovative personnel.
Deepening reform. Fully give play to the role of market mechanism, balanced and severely, accelerate reform of the key areas and crucial links, systems and mechanisms conducive to promoting the sustainable development of energy.
-- international cooperation. The overall domestic and international two overall situation, vigorously expanding energy range, channels and ways of international cooperation, and promote energy of "going out" and "introduction to" level, promote the establishment of a new international energy order, efforts to achieve win-win cooperation.
Improving people's wellbeing. Balance urban and rural and regional energy development, strengthening the construction of energy infrastructure and basic public service ability, eliminating energy poverty as soon as possible, efforts to improve the level of the people can use.
The law of the People's Republic of China on the twelfth five-year plan for national economic and social development outline put forward: by 2015, China non-fossil energy of primary energy consumption ratio reached 11.4%, per unit of GDP energy consumption 16% lower than in 2010, per unit of GDP carbon dioxide emissions 17% lower than in 2010.
The Chinese government promised that by 2020 non-fossil energy of primary energy consumption ratio will reach 15%, per unit of GDP carbon dioxide emissions by 40% - 45% than in 2005. As a responsible major country, China will make unremitting efforts to achieve this goal.
Third, we will comprehensively promote energy conservation
China has a large population and a relative shortage of resources. To realize sustainable and sustainable economic and social development of energy resources, we must take the path of energy conservation.
China has always prioritized energy conservation. As early as the early 1980s, the state put forward the development policy of "developing and saving and putting economy first". In 2006, the Chinese government issued the "decision on strengthening energy efficiency". In 2007, the comprehensive work plan for energy conservation and emission reduction was released, and the energy conservation work in major areas such as industry, construction and transportation was fully deployed. Implementation of "ten major energy conservation projects", push coal-fired industrial boilers and furnaces, utilization of by-product heat pressure and motor system energy saving, building energy efficiency, green lighting, government agencies, form the energy-saving capacity of 340 million tons of standard coal. We launched the "thousand enterprises energy saving operation", and key enterprises, including the comprehensive energy consumption, fell sharply, saving 150 million tons of standard coal. During the eleventh five-year plan period, energy consumption per unit of GDP fell 19.1%.
In 2011, China issued "the comprehensive energy saving and emission reduction work" twelfth five-year "plan", put forward the "twelfth five-year" period and the key work, the main targets for energy conservation and emissions reduction to reduce energy intensity, the decrease of total discharge of major pollutants, the reasonable control of the total energy consumption work organically, form the "reversed transmission mechanism", promote strategic adjustment of economic structure, optimize the industrial structure and layout, strengthen the industrial, construction, transportation, public institutions and urban and rural construction and consumption energy management, building a resource-conserving and environment-friendly society in an all-round way.
-- optimize the industrial structure. China has insisted on restructuring its industrial structure as a strategic priority for energy conservation. We will strictly control the construction of low levels, and accelerate the elimination of energy-intensive, high-emission and backward production capacity. We will accelerate the use of advanced technology for upgrading traditional industries. We will increase the threshold for processing trade and promote the transformation and upgrading of processing trade. Improving the structure of foreign trade and promoting the transformation of foreign trade from energy and labor intensive to capital and technology-intensive. We will promote the development of the service industry. We will cultivate and develop strategic emerging industries and accelerate the formation of a leading and pillar industry.
-- strengthening industrial energy efficiency. Industrial use accounts for more than 70 percent of China's energy consumption, and industry is a key area of energy conservation. National iron and steel, petrochemical, non-ferrous, building materials and other key industries directory advanced applicable technology, energy saving and emission reduction of backward technology, equipment and products, development of energy-saving, high value-added products and equipment. We will establish a compulsory standard system for energy consumption in key industries and strengthen the system for evaluating and reviewing energy efficiency. To organize the implementation of cogeneration, industrial by-product gas recycling, enterprise energy control center construction, energy-saving industry cultivation of key energy-saving projects, such as improve enterprise efficiency.
-- building energy efficiency. The state vigorously develops green buildings and comprehensively promotes energy conservation in buildings. Establish and improve green building standards and promote green building ratings and logos. To promote energy saving renovation of existing buildings of public building energy consumption quota and energy efficiency of the public system, build system of building use full life cycle management, strict management of building demolition. We will formulate and implement the plan for public sector energy conservation, and strengthen the construction of a public building energy efficiency regulatory system. Existing buildings in northern heating region, the heat metering and energy efficiency renovation, the project of "energy saving greenhouses" heating old pipe network, the energy consumption of heating metering and quota management.
-- promoting energy efficiency. We will comprehensively implement the strategy of priority development for buses, actively promote inter-city rail transportation, and properly guide green travel. We will implement the standard of automobile fuel consumption in the world advanced level, and promote the use of energy-saving and environmentally friendly vehicles. Accelerate the elimination of old cars, locomotives and ships. We will improve the transport structure and vigorously develop green logistics. We will increase the proportion of railway electrification and carry out energy conservation and transformation in airports, ports and stations. We will actively promote r&d and application of new energy vehicles, scientific planning and construction of gas and charging facilities.
-- we will promote energy saving for all. We will increase energy conservation, education and publicity, and encourage urban and rural residents to form a model of green consumption and a way of life to increase the awareness of the whole nation. We will strictly enforce the standards and norms for energy efficiency in public institutions, and play a leading role in government agencies. To mobilize the participation by all circles of the society and actively carry out community, schools, government agencies, military camps and enterprises energy saving action, efforts to establish a long-term mechanism of energy saving in the whole society. We will promote energy conservation and emission reduction in agriculture and rural areas and promote energy-saving housing construction.
Fourth, we will energetically develop new energy and renewable energy
Vigorously develop new energy and renewable energy, is to promote energy multiple clean development, important strategic moves to foster strategic emerging industries, and protect the ecological environment, climate change, sustainable development of urgent need. China unswervingly developing new energy and renewable energy, by the end of the 12th five-year, non-fossil energy consumption of primary energy consumption ratio will reach 11.4%, the proportion of non-fossil energy power-generation reached 30%.
-- we will energetically develop hydropower. China's water resources are rich in resources, with a technical development capacity of 542 million kilowatts, ranking first in the world. China currently has less than 30 per cent hydropower development in terms of power generation, and still has great potential for development. The goal of achieving 15 percent of non-fossil energy consumption by 2020 will be achieved by water and electricity. In well under the premise of ecological environment protection, resettlement, China will vigorously develop hydropower, the hydropower development and promoting local jobs and economic development, cogent accomplish "side economic development side resources, development, improve the environment for one party, the benefit of one party and the people". We will improve the policy on relocation and relocation of hydropower, and improve the mechanism for sharing benefits. Strengthen ecological environmental protection and environmental impact assessment, strictly carry out the ecological protection of the hydropower station, improve the level of comprehensive utilization of water resources and ecological environment benefit. Completes the basin hydropower development planning, to speed up the construction of key river basin large hydropower stations, adjust measures to local conditions to develop small and medium-sized rivers hydropower resources, scientific planning and construction of pumped storage power station. China's hydropower capacity will reach 290 gigawatts by 2015.
-- safe and efficient development of nuclear power. Nuclear power is a clean, efficient and high-quality modern energy. The development of nuclear power is of great significance to optimizing the energy structure and safeguarding national energy security. China currently generates only 1.8% of its electricity generation, well below the world average of 14%. Nuclear security is the lifeline of nuclear power. After the fukushima nuclear accident in Japan, China carried out a comprehensive and strict comprehensive safety inspection of nuclear power plants in China. Test results show that China's nuclear safety is assured, never happened in the nuclear power unit 20 years level 2 and above nuclear safety incident (accident), the main operation parameters to the world average, some indicators into the international advanced level, or has reached the international leading level. Continue to adhere to the scientific rationality of nuclear safety concept, the principle of "safety first" strictly implement to nuclear power planning, site selection, research and development, design, construction and operation process, retired, etc. We will formulate and improve the nuclear regulatory system. We will improve the safety management mechanism for nuclear power, set the threshold for entry and implement the responsibility of the security body. We will improve the regulatory system for nuclear power, strengthen the safety supervision and inspection of nuclear power plants and the supervision and management of the radiation environment. We will establish and improve the emergency response mechanism for the national nuclear accident and improve the ability of emergency response. We will increase investment in science and technology innovation, promote the application of advanced nuclear power technologies, raise the level of nuclear power equipment and emphasize the cultivation of nuclear power personnel. By 2015, China will have 40 gigawatts of nuclear power capacity.
-- effective development of wind power. Wind power is the most scalable and market-based alternative to renewable energy. China is the fastest growing country in the world, and in the 12th five-year plan period, we will focus on development and diversification and optimize the development of wind power. We will promote the development of wind power in the northwest, north and northeast wind resources, and accelerate the development and utilization of the dispersed wind resources. Steady development of offshore wind power. We will improve the standards for wind power equipment and the industrial monitoring system. We will encourage the development of key technologies in wind-power equipment companies and accelerate the upgrading of wind power industries. Through strengthening the construction of power grid, improve power grid scheduling level, improve the wind power equipment performance and strengthen the wind power prediction, improve the ability of given wind power system. By 2015, there will be more than 100 gigawatts of wind power installed in China, including 5 million kilowatts of offshore wind power.
-- take advantage of solar energy. China is rich in solar resources and has great potential for development. During the 12th five-year plan period, China adhered to the combination of centralized development and distributed utilization to promote solar energy diversification. In qinghai, xinjiang, gansu, Inner Mongolia and other solar energy resources are rich, have in desert and idle land resources, in order to increase the local power supply for the purpose, the construction of large grid photovoltaic power station and solar thermal power projects. We will encourage the construction of a distributed photovoltaic power system in central and eastern China. We will increase the popularization of solar water heaters, encourage solar energy to concentrate heating water, solar energy heating and cooling, and solar heat industrial applications. Use solar water heaters, solar ovens and solar cells in rural areas, border areas and small towns. By 2015, China will build more than 21 million kilowatts of solar power generating capacity, with a total area of 400 million square meters.
-- develop other renewable energy sources such as biomass energy. China adheres to the principle of "overall consideration, local conditions, comprehensive utilization and orderly development", and develops other renewable energy sources such as biomass energy. In the main producing areas of grain and cotton, the production of biomass for fuel such as crop straw, food waste and bagasse is developed in an orderly manner. In the rich areas of forest trees, the biomass of trees will be developed in moderation. Developing municipal waste incineration and landfill gas generation. In the areas where conditions are available, biomass gas projects such as biogas are advanced. The production base of biomass forming fuel is made suitable for local conditions. Develop biodiesel and develop a demonstration of cellulosic ethanol industry. In order to protect the groundwater resources, we will promote the efficient utilization of geothermal energy. We will strengthen the tracking and development of the development and utilization of tidal power, wave energy, and dry hot rocks.
-- promoting distributed utilization of clean energy. China adheres to the principle of "self-use, Internet, appropriate and orderly development" and actively develop distributed energy. At the center of energy load, we will accelerate the development of a gas distributed energy system. We will vigorously promote the application of distributed renewable energy technologies by focusing on energy consumption centers such as cities and industrial parks. We will promote the development of distributed renewable energy in rural areas, forests and islands. Standards for distributed energy, improve the distributed energy online electricity price forming mechanism and policies, efforts to achieve direct for distributed generation and without discrimination, barrier-free access to power grid. During the 12th five-year plan period, we will build 1, 000 natural gas distributed energy projects, as well as a distributed energy demonstration region of about 10 typical features.
Fifth, promote clean development of fossil fuels
From the world's perspective, fossil fuels such as coal and oil will remain the mainstay of energy supply for a long time to come, and China is no exception. As a whole the fossil energy development and utilization and environmental protection in China, we will accelerate the development of advanced production capacity, backward production capacity, vigorously promote the development of clean fossil energy, protect the ecological environment, climate change and achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction.
-- safe and efficient development of coal. The Chinese coal industry adheres to the principle of scientific layout, intensive development, safe production, efficient utilization and environmental protection. In accordance with the principle of controlling the east, stabilizing the central region and developing the west, we will promote the construction of 14 large coal bases such as the northern shaanxi, the Yellow River and the east. We will implement the consolidation of coal resources and mergers and reorganization of coal mining enterprises, and develop large coal enterprises. We will give priority to the construction of large-scale modern coal mines and special mines. We will implement the upgrading of coal mines and the elimination of backward production capacity, and improve the mechanization of coal mining and the level of production safety. We will energetically develop a circular economy in the mining area, increase the proportion of coal washing, and properly develop the resources for coal use. In accordance with energy intensive, technology-intensive, capital intensive, long industrial chain, high value-added development orientation, the orderly construction of coal deep processing and upgrading demonstration project. We will encourage the construction of low-heat coal clean and processing projects. We will strengthen environmental protection and ecological construction in coal mining areas, and do a good job in the ecological comprehensive management and land reclamation in the areas and areas affected by coal mining.
-- clean and efficient electricity. China adheres to the principle of low-carbon, clean and efficient, and vigorously develops green electric power. We will encourage the development of coal and electric power, and steadily advance the construction of large coal-fired power bases. We will actively use advanced generation technologies such as supercritical and supercritical, and build clean and efficient coal-fired units and energy-efficient and environmentally friendly power plants. We will continue to phase out small coal-fired power units that use high energy and pollution. Strict control of coal-fired power plant emissions, new coal unit synchronous installation of dust removal and desulfurization and denitration facilities, to speed up both the power plant flue gas dust removal, desulfurization and denitration. We will encourage the construction of heat and power generation units in areas such as large and medium-sized cities and industrial parks. In the suitable areas, the joint circulation peak of gas steam and steam is constructed reasonably, and the heating and electricity cooling of natural gas is actively promoted. Strictly controlled in the bohai sea, the Yangtze river delta, the pearl river delta area new addition "the big pressure small" and the heat and electricity co-production of the coal unit. We will strengthen the application of the popularization of water-saving technologies in coal-fired power plants. We will carry out the integrated coal gasification combined cycle generation and the demonstration project of carbon capture and storage.
-- we will intensify exploration and development of conventional oil and gas resources. China will continue to implement the policy of combining oil and gas, stabilizing the east, accelerating the west, developing the south and expanding the sea. We will advance the steady production of crude oil, and steadily advance the exploration and development of major oil-producing areas such as tarim basin and ordos basin. We will strengthen the stabilization of old fields and improve recovery. Accelerate the development of natural gas, increase the Midwest main gas production capacity construction, and pay special attention to the main gas field production, promote the offshore oil and gas field exploration and development, gradually increase the proportion of natural gas in primary energy structure. Optimization of refining industry layout, construction of several large refining base, bohai sea, Yangtze river delta, the pearl river delta three major refining concentrated area, realize the integration of upstream and downstream integration, integration of oil refining chemical industry, oil refining reserves and intensive development.
-- actively promoting the exploitation and utilization of unconventional oil and gas resources. Accelerating unconventional oil and gas exploration and development is an important means to enhance China's energy supply security. China will accelerate the exploration and development of coal-bed methane and increase the proven geological reserves, so as to promote the construction of coal-bed methane industrialization bases such as the qinshui basin and the eastern rim of the ordos basin. We will accelerate the exploration and development of shale gas, and select a number of shale gas and favorable areas. To speed up the conquer shale gas exploration and development of core technology, set up shale gas exploration and development mechanisms, the implementation of the industry to encourage policy, improve the supporting infrastructure, the national production to reach 6.5 billion by 2015 cubic meters of overall goal, for the rapid development of shale gas in the future to lay the solid foundation. We will intensify exploration and development of unconventional oil and gas resources such as shale oil and oil sands.
-- strengthening energy storage and transportation facilities. Considering the target market, industrial layout adjustment, coal and electricity, wind power, nuclear power, natural gas power generation, pumped storage and import energy source such as construction, as well as the source of water and the ecological environment factors such as bearing capacity, planning as a whole energy delivery channel construction. We will accelerate the expansion of existing railway lines and the construction of new railway coal transport routes, improve the transport capacity of coal across the region, and build a supporting port pier. To further expand the scale of xd to east, north to south, improve the trunk for regional power grid, the advanced development of uhv transmission technology, improve the ability of grid resource optimizing configuration. We will strengthen the construction of crude oil, refined oil and natural gas backbone networks, increase the proportion of oil and gas pipelines, improve regional transportation networks and build large coastal oil and gas discharge stations. We will strictly implement the laws and regulations on the protection of oil and gas pipelines to ensure the safe operation of oil and gas pipelines. We will make overall resources reserve and national reserves and commercial reserves, strengthen the capacity for emergency protection, and improve the system of oil, refined oil, natural gas and coal reserves. Improving natural gas capacity. We will establish and improve the storage of coal reserves.
We will increase the level of energy services
Ensuring and improving people's wellbeing is the fundamental starting point and goal of China's energy development. China energy coordinated development between urban and rural areas as a whole, to strengthen the construction of energy infrastructure, improve the rural and frontier minority areas can use conditions, improve the level of energy equal basic services, let more energy development achievements benefit all the people.
-- solve the problem of electricity without electricity. Increase financial investment, by expanding the grid coverage and distributed renewable energy development, strive to solve Tibet, xinjiang, qinghai, Inner Mongolia, yunnan, sichuan and other provinces population without electricity power problem. In the centralized area of the non-electric population, the establishment and improvement of the power universal service system which assumes the function of social public service. The electricity problem of the non-electric population was largely solved by 2015.
-- we will vigorously promote rural energy development. We will strengthen rural energy development, and make great significance to improving the livelihood of rural residents and developing modern agriculture. Adhere to the "adjust measures to local conditions, can complement each other, comprehensive utilization and pragmatic" principle, strengthen rural energy infrastructure construction, improve rural energy management and service system. To promote the rural power grid construction and transformation, to improve rural production and living condition of electricity, the construction of safe and reliable, energy-saving and environmental protection, advanced technology, standardized management of the new rural power grid. We will vigorously develop renewable energy in rural areas, develop green energy demonstration projects in accordance with local conditions, and build 200 green energy demonstration counties and 1,000 solar demonstration villages by 2015. We will implement the transformation of rural hydropower and hydropower expansion, and strengthen the construction of new rural electrified counties and small hydropower projects. Promote the application of solar water heater.
-- we will strengthen energy development in border areas. Since China's reform and opening up, the frontier region's economic and social development made historic progress, with the condition can be improved, but compared with the central and eastern regions have larger gap. Countries will increase financial support to border areas, strengthen the regional energy infrastructure and energy of the people's livelihood project construction, and actively support Tibet, leapfrog development in xinjiang. We will accelerate the construction of the power grid in Tibet, xinjiang and qinghai, sichuan, yunnan and gansu, and expand the coverage of the grid and improve the reliability of electricity supply. We will formulate and implement the plan for the development of Tibet's energy development, increase the funding for the assistance of the electricity assistance, and direct assistance will exceed 900 million yuan during the 12th five-year plan period. To speed up the "gasification southern xinjiang", "gasification northern xinjiang people's livelihood" energy engineering, continue to strengthen the construction of xinjiang and the northwest power grid network engineering, promoting the construction of "outside xinjiang electric energy passage" and the resource advantage into economic advantage in xinjiang as soon as possible. We will build a number of new energy facilities such as solar power and scenic complementary power plants in remote farming and pastoral areas, and improve the quality of life for farmers and herdsmen.
We will improve the living conditions for urban residents. We will strengthen the transformation and upgrading of urban power grids and improve the quality and reliability of power supply. We will ensure the supply of electricity and ensure that residents live on electricity. We will speed up the development of natural gas, build and improve the city's supply pipe network, and allow more people to use natural gas. In the northern cities of heating and heating, the heating and electric power generation units should be developed to improve the heating conditions of residents.
Accelerating progress in energy and technology
Since China's reform and opening up, the energy level of science and technology in China has increased significantly, energy science and technology progress in promoting energy conservation and emission reduction, optimize energy structure, ensure energy security played an important role. But compared with developed countries, China's energy science and technology level there is still a large gap, the independent innovation is weak, the base of the core and the key technology behind the advanced level, some key technologies and equipment is dependent on imported. China will pay more attention to scientific and technological innovation and accelerate the construction and improvement of an integrated energy science and technology innovation system suited to China's characteristics. In 2011, China released the 12th five-year plan for national energy technology. This a department of energy science and technology special planning, determine the exploration and mining, processing and transformation, new energy power generation and transmission and distribution, four key technologies, such as comprehensive deployment of construction "major technology research and demonstration projects of major technical equipment, the significant and the technical innovation platform" four one of the national energy science and technology innovation system.
-- strengthening research and development of energy science and technology. In geology, material, environment, energy and information and control on basic science, advancing the deployment of a group of the guiding role of energy development strategic frontier technology research projects and strive for a breakthrough in the field of energy basic scientific research. Relying on industry backbone enterprises and research institutes, application oriented, encouraging mine efficient and intensive production, unconventional oil and gas exploration and development, efficient clean power generation, offshore wind, advanced solar thermal power generation, oil and gas storage and transportation, large capacity, high efficiency long transmission advanced applied technology research and development application, etc. We will continue to implement the "large oil and gas and coalbed methane development", "large" advanced pressurized water reactor and high temperature gas cooled reactor nuclear power station two national major projects of science and technology, promote key technological innovation, enhance energy original innovation, integrated innovation and the introduction of digestion, absorption and innovation ability.
-- advances in energy and equipment technology. Based on major technical equipment engineering, strengthen technology research, improve the comprehensive, establish and improve the energy equipment standards, testing and certification system, improve the major energy equipment design, manufacture and system integration. To further improve the policy support system, key high power high parameter ultra-supercritical unit, gas turbine, the three generations of nuclear power, renewable energy power generation units, unconventional oil and gas exploration and development and other key equipment technology, actively promote the application of advanced technology equipment. We will strengthen planning and guidance for the energy and equipment industry and prevent low levels of duplication.
-- implementing major science and technology demonstration projects. Around the energy change of the pattern of economic development and industrial transformation and upgrading, in large advanced pressurized water reactor, high temperature gas cooled reactor, coalbed methane exploitation and utilization, shale gas exploration and development, deep processing of coal, energy storage, smart grid, and other fields, increase the intensity of capital, technology, policy support, the construction of a major demonstration project, promote the transformation of scientific and technological achievements into realistic productivity.
-- improving the system of energy and technological innovation. Relying on large enterprises, scientific research institutions and universities, in the exploration and coalbed methane development and utilization of coal resources, shale gas exploration and development, Marine engineering equipment, large clean and efficient power generation equipment, smart grid technology, and advanced nuclear reactor technology, continue to build a number of national energy technology innovation platform, strengthening independent research and development and core technology research. We will improve the country's support policy system for technological innovation platforms. We should give full play to the role of innovation and promote the application of innovation. We will guide scientific research institutions and institutions of higher learning to serve the enterprise's technological innovation service and better realize the organic combination of research and development. We will improve the system of scientific and technological evaluation and reward, and establish and improve the training system and incentive mechanism for energy innovation talents.
We will deepen the reform of the energy system
Reform is a powerful driving force for accelerating the transformation of development. China will firmly promote the reform of the energy sector, strengthen the top-level design and overall planning, accelerate the construction of systems and mechanisms conducive to the development of energy science, improve the energy development environment, promote energy production and utilization way change, ensure national energy security.
-- accelerating the construction of energy and the legal system. We will improve the energy legal system and provide legal guarantee for regulating energy markets, protecting the ecological environment and safeguarding energy security. China attaches great importance to and continue to actively promote energy legal system construction, is currently studying argument set energy method and oil reserves, Marine oil and gas pipeline protection, nuclear power management, and other aspects of the administrative rules and regulations, and improve the "MeiTanFa", "electric power law" and so on the current laws and regulations, promoting legislative work in the field of oil and gas, nuclear, etc.
-- improve the market system mechanism. China has actively promoted market-oriented reform of energy, and made full use of the basic role of market allocation resources. All projects listed in the national energy plan shall be open to private capital except for the explicit prohibition of laws and regulations. Encourage private capital to participate in energy resource exploration and development, oil and natural gas pipe network construction, the electric power construction, encourage private capital to develop the coal processing and conversion and oil refining industry, continue to support private capital fully into the new energy and renewable energy industry. We will strengthen and standardize the management of coal exploration and development, phase out the dual-track system for coal and market coal in key contracts, and improve the mechanism for coordinating development of coal and coal-bed methane. We will deepen the reform of the electric power system and steadily carry out trials of distribution and distribution. We will actively promote the reform of the electricity price, and gradually form the pricing mechanism set by the government in order to generate electricity and sell electricity. Rationalize the price of coal electricity. We will explore the establishment of a renewable energy quota system. We will successfully implement the reform of the tax and fees for finished products, and use tax measures to properly guide energy consumption. We will continue to improve the pricing mechanism for refined and refined oil products, and launch a pilot scheme for reforming natural gas prices. We will improve the energy market system and develop physical and long-term contracts, futures and other forms of trading.
-- we will strengthen the management of the energy sector. We must strengthen the management of the energy sector in order to improve the efficiency of energy and resource development, promote the scientific development of the energy sector and safeguard national energy security. To attach importance to the strategic planning and macro-control of energy development, and implement the management of the industry by means of planning, policies and standards. Reducing the government's interference in micro-affairs and streamlining administrative approval. We will strengthen oversight of monopolistic practices and unfair competition practices, and establish an open, fair, scientific and effective regulatory system. We will strengthen the management of energy statistical forecasting and improve the system of energy statistics, monitoring and forecasting.
Strengthening international cooperation on energy
China cannot develop in isolation from the rest of the world. The prosperity of the world needs China. With the deepening of globalization, China is increasingly connected with the world in energy development. China's energy development not only guarantees its economic and social development, but also contributes to safeguarding world energy security and maintaining global market stability.
China is a responsible active participant in international energy cooperation. In bilateral cooperation, China and the United States, the European Union, Japan, Russia, kazakhstan, turkmenistan, uzbekistan, Brazil, Argentina, venezuela and other countries and regions set up energy dialogue and cooperation mechanism, the oil and gas, coal, electric power, renewable energy, technology and equipment and energy policy, and other fields to strengthen dialogue, exchanges and cooperation. In the multilateral cooperation, China is in the Asia Pacific economic cooperation organization energy working group, the group of 20 nations, the Shanghai cooperation organization, the world energy council, a full member of the international energy organizations and mechanisms such as BBS or important participant, is the observer states energy charter, with the international energy agency, the organization of petroleum exporting countries such as institutions maintained close contact. In international energy cooperation, China has both broad international obligations and a positive constructive role.
China is committed to opening up to the outside world in the energy sector, constantly optimizing the environment for foreign investment and ensuring the lawful rights and interests of investors. China has successively introduced the chinese-foreign equity joint venture law, the sino-foreign cooperative joint venture law, the foreign investment enterprise law and other laws and regulations, as well as the foreign investment industrial guidance catalogue, the catalog of foreign-funded dominant industries of the mid-west region and other policy documents. China encourages foreign investors to cooperate in exploration and development of oil and gas, and develop unconventional oil and gas resources such as shale gas and coal bed methane. It will encourage investment in new energy plants, hydroelectric plants and plants that use clean burning technology, as well as those controlled by China. Encourage multinational energy companies to set up r&d centers in China.
Chinese energy companies follow the principle of equality and reciprocity, mutual benefit and win-win, active participation in international energy cooperation and participation in overseas energy infrastructure construction, energy engineering technology development service cooperation. Enterprise foreign investment cooperation development of China's energy resources, more than 90% in local sales, increased the global energy market, promote the diversification of supply channels. Chinese energy companies in foreign investment cooperation, comply with local laws and regulations, respect the local religious beliefs and customs, in the realization of self development and at the same time, actively contribute to the local economic and social development.
For a long time to come, the international energy trade will remain the primary means of China's use of foreign energy. China will follow the rules of the world trade organization, improve fair trade policies, conduct energy import and export trade and optimize trade structure. Comprehensive application of futures trade, long trade, entrepot trade, barter trade, etc., to promote diversified trade. Actively participating in global energy governance, strengthen the communication and cooperation with the rest of the world, jointly cope with the international monetary system, excessive speculation, monopoly on the influence of the energy market, maintaining the stability of the international energy market and price.
Energy issues are related to the national economy and people's well-being. In order to reduce the energy resources problem of conflict and inequality, realize smooth and orderly development of world economy, promote economic globalization towards the direction of equilibrium, pratt &whitney and win-win, needs the international community to establish mutually beneficial cooperation, diversified forms of development and protection of the new energy security concept. In order to jointly safeguard global energy security, China maintains that the international community should make efforts in the following three areas:
-- strengthen dialogue and exchanges. Strengthening dialogue and exchanges between energy exporters, consumers and transit countries is the foundation for conducting international cooperation on energy. More closely multilateral relations, the international community should strengthen to increase energy efficiency, energy conservation, environmental protection, energy management, energy policy dialogue, improve the international energy market monitoring and emergency response mechanism, deepening the information exchanges, personnel training, the cooperation between the coordinated action, etc.
-- conducting practical cooperation on energy. Countries should adhere to the principle of mutual benefit and common development, the international energy resources exploration and development and mutual benefit cooperation, enrich and perfect the mechanism and means of cooperation, increasing global energy supply, promote the diversification of supply channels. We will work together to stabilize the price of commodities and ensure that all countries can demand and maintain the normal order of energy markets. Developed countries should be the height of the human sustainable development, on the premise of protection of intellectual property rights, and actively to the developing countries and developed countries provide, transfer of clean and efficient energy technologies, promote green development in the world. The international community should work together to help the least developed countries eradicate energy poverty, expand energy services and promote sustainable development.
-- jointly safeguard world energy security. Fair and reasonable international energy governance is an important condition for safeguarding the stability of the world's energy markets. All countries should strengthen cooperation, jointly maintain energy producer and transit countries, especially in the Middle East oil-producing areas such as stability, ensure safety and smooth international energy channels, reduce the interference of geopolitical disputes to the global energy supply. Through dialogue and consultation, addressing major international energy issues should not politicize energy issues, avoid resorting to force, and even provoke confrontation.
Energy is an important material foundation for China to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects and achieve modernization and a strong country. China will work hard to solve the energy problem and unswervingly follow the path of energy and sustainable development.
A period in the future, China will still in the stage of industrialization and urbanization speed up the development of the task is very difficult for the development of the economy, improve people's livelihood, energy demand will also increase. As a big developing country with a population of 1.3 billion, China must base on domestic increasing energy supply, steadily improve the supply ability, satisfy the steady and rapid economic development and people's living standards improve the demand for energy.
Energy security is a global problem, and most countries cannot leave international cooperation for energy security. China's achievements in energy development are inseparable from friendly cooperation with other countries in the world. China's future energy development needs the understanding and support of the international community. China, with a billion people, is on the path of sustainable development of energy. This is a new exploration and practice in the development of human energy. China has not, is, and will not pose a threat to world energy security. China will be in line with the principles of equality and mutual benefit, mutual benefit and win-win results, further strengthen with other energy producers, consumers and the international energy agency cooperation, to promote the sustainable development of the world's energy, maintain the stability of the international energy market and price, ensure safety and smooth of international energy channel, to ensure global energy security and contribute to climate change.